Search for Selected RRI Indicators
At this page RRI Trends provides selected quantitative and qualitative indicators which help to put the RRI Trends country reports in perspective. The selected indicators cover the following topics:
Science in Society
A selection of indicators of Science in Society based on the MASIS project is presented below. Specifically, we have chosen indicators
which have been developed for analytical purposes and have been academically validated in peer review processes. These include v1, v2,
and v3 concerned with models and degrees of citizen involvement in science and technology, v4 and v5 concerned with patterns of science
communication and public debate related to science and technology, v6 concerned with the use of science in policy-making, and v7 concerned
with the vibrancy of SiS as a research field. These have been influential dimensions in the European Commission’s Science in Society schemes,
and they also remain relevant towards the emerging elements of Responsible Research and Innovation.
Citizen involvement in science and technology is, e.g., clearly captured or at least echoed in the ‘Engagement’ key component of the European Commission’s conceptualisation of RRI, in the ‘Interactional’ processes of innovating responsibly in Von Schomberg’s definition, or in the core ideas of deliberation and the ‘opening up’ of innovation processes in the framework of RRI proposed by Owen and colleagues. Similar linkages can be found between other MASIS based constructs and the developing RRI programme, so in this way the MASIS national indicators can be used as one entry point to the area of RRI. The above chosen seven specific variables have all been developed for papers published as part of a special issue of Science and Public Policy in late 2012.
In order to tap into issues related to innovation capacity, the scanning includes data from the Innovation Union Scoreboard, which is an annual comparative assessment of the research and innovation performance and relative strength of the innovation systems in the 27 EU countries and a number of additional both European and non-European countries. The Innovation Union Scoreboard is one out of a number of innovation oriented monitoring schemes under the umbrella of the EC’s Directorate General for Enterprise and Industry (e.g. Inno-Policy Trendchart on research and innovation policies, European Cluster Observatory on innovation clusters, and Innobarometer on public sector innovation). We use, as v8 presented below, the Innovation Union Scoreboard score as an indicator of innovation capacity, and include as well in the country scanning two composite measures of innovation (v9) and technological readiness (v10) that both emerge from the World Economic Forum. The latter draws its data from national organisations and data archives and combines these with data emerging from annual surveys among business executives. The main attention in the World Economic Forum’s global competitiveness report is on the relevance of such measures of innovation capacity towards national productivity.
To add indicators of R&D intensity, we include the commonly used EUROSTAT measures on actual expenditure on R&D relative to national production, GERD as percentage of GDP, as v11, as well as budgeted government expenses on research and development relative to the overall government budget, GBOARD, as v12. Also as a measure of volume or intensity, the OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators on number of R&D personnel and number of researchers respectively per thousand members of the labour force are added as v13 and v14.
Interaction of Public and Private Research
For the interaction of public and private research, we include a measure from the Mobility and career paths Of Researchers in Europe (MORE) project on the share of researcher indicating that they have been employed in both the public and private sector as v15, and a measure based on the relative proportion of public sector researchers with formal collaboration with the business sector as v16. The two MORE indicators have been harvested from the recent Deloitte ‘Researchers’ Report 2012’.
Since issues pertaining to gender equality have played an important role in the Science in Society scheme (and remains a key component of the EC’s RRI concept), we add to the scanning database indicators on women in science, including the relative proportion of women in top academic positions as v17, and as v18 the ‘glass ceiling index’ that illustrates the difficulties women have in gaining access to the highest hierarchical levels by comparing the proportion of women in grade A academic positions to the overall proportion of women in academia. These emerge from She Figures, while a third indicator (v19) on the relative proportion of new female doctoral graduates is extracted from the multi-sourced report from Deloitte.
Finally, even though bibliometrics is no exhaustive measure of research performance and impact, we add as v20 the so called ‘PPtop10%’ indicator which expresses the proportion of scientific publications in the top 10% most cited publications worldwide as percentage of total production in each of the countries, which does provide an indication of research excellence in each of the countries.